Data systems are categorized into two main categories: passive and active components. The passive components provide the infrastructure, i.e. the means, that the active components use to communicate. These include the cabling, the connecting hardware, the telecom spaces, and all other material related to structured cabling. They do not include electronic boards; hence, they do not need electric power to function. In contrast, active components are devices that actually perform the networking processes. These include, routers, switches, IP telephones, workstations etc.. They contain electronic circuitry boards; hence they need electric power to operate.